BIM-enabled facilities management (FM): a scrutiny of risks resulting from cyber attacks

Ghadiminia, Nikdokht and Mayouf, Mohammad and Cox, Sharon and Krasniewicz, Jan (2021) BIM-enabled facilities management (FM): a scrutiny of risks resulting from cyber attacks. Journal of Facilities Management. ISSN 1472-5967

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Abstract

Purpose
Building information modelling (BIM) creates a golden thread of information of the facility, which proves useful to those with the malicious intent of breaching the security of the facility. A cyber-attack incurs adverse implications for the facility and its managing organisation. Hence, this paper aims to unravel the impact of a cybersecurity breach, by developing a BIM-facilities management (FM) cybersecurity-risk-matrix to portray what a cybersecurity attack means for various working areas of FM.

Design/methodology/approach
This study commenced with exploring cybersecurity within various stages of a BIM project. This showcased a heightened risk of cybersecurity at the post-occupancy phase. Hence, thematic analysis of two main domains of BIM-FM and cybersecurity in the built environment led to the development of a matrix that illustrated the impact of a cybersecurity attack on a BIM-FM organisation.

Findings
Findings show that the existing approaches to the management of cybersecurity in BIM-FM are technology-dependent, resulting in an over-reliance on technology and a lack of cybersecurity awareness of aspects related to people and processes. This study sheds light on the criticality of cyber-risk at the post-occupancy phase, highlighting the FM areas which will be compromised as a result of a cyber-attack.

Originality/value
This study seeks to shift focus to the people and process aspects of cybersecurity in BIM-FM. Through discussing the interconnections between the physical and digital assets of a built facility, this study develops a cyber-risk matrix, which acts as a foundation for empirical investigations of the matter in future research.

Item Type: Article
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1108/JFM-01-2021-0001
Date: 15 June 2021
Uncontrolled Keywords: BIM, FM, cybersecurity, risks, threats, cyber-awareness
Subjects: K200 Building
Divisions: Faculty of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environment > School of Engineering and the Built Environment > Integrated Design Construction
Depositing User: Mohammad Mayouf
Date Deposited: 30 Jun 2021 14:29
Last Modified: 30 Jun 2021 14:29
URI: http://www.open-access.bcu.ac.uk/id/eprint/11869

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