A systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the prevalence of depression between people with and without Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes

Farooqi, Aaisha and Gillies, Clare and Sathanpally, Harini and Abner, Sophia and Seidu, Sam and Davies, Melanie and Polonsky, William and Khunti, Kamlesh (2021) A systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the prevalence of depression between people with and without Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Primary Care Diabetes. ISSN 1751-9918

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Diabetes can significantly impact quality of life and mental health. However, inconsistencies have been reported in the prevalence of depression in those with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, and those without. Systematic reviews also included studies without adequate control subjects. We update existing literature, by comparing depression prevalence between individuals with and without Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.


A systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHINFO, from January 1985 to August 2021. Studies were excluded if they failed to have an adequate control group, specified type of diabetes, or reported depression prevalence by type of diabetes.


44 studies were selected for inclusion. The prevalence of depression was significantly higher in people with Type 1 (22% vs 13%, OR = 2.10 (95% CI: 1.23,3.52)), or Type 2 diabetes (19% vs 11%, OR = 1.76 (1.55,2.01)) compared to those without diabetes. There was no association between study effect size and mean age or gender. Findings did not significantly differ between methods of depression assessment. Prevalence of depression in people with diabetes was higher in studies carried out in specialist care (36%, OR = 3.14 (2.12,4.63)) compared to those in community or primary care (12%, OR= 1.51 (1.35,1.70) and in low- and middle-income countries (OR = 2.58 (1.91, 3.50) compared to countries with high income economies (OR= 1.59 (1.39, 1.82)).

Depression prevalence remains significant in those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Effective chronic disease management in people with diabetes is important, particularly screening and managing depression and diabetes distress in specialist care settings.

Item Type: Article
7 November 2021Accepted
19 November 2021Published Online
Uncontrolled Keywords: Co-morbidity Depression Depressive symptoms Prevalence Type 1 diabetes mellitus Type 2 diabetes mellitus Diabetes distress
Subjects: CAH01 - medicine and dentistry > CAH01-01 - medicine and dentistry > CAH01-01-02 - medicine (non-specific)
CAH04 - psychology > CAH04-01 - psychology > CAH04-01-01 - psychology (non-specific)
Divisions: Faculty of Business, Law and Social Sciences > School of Social Sciences > Dept. Psychology
Depositing User: Aaisha Farooqi
Date Deposited: 03 Dec 2021 11:02
Last Modified: 19 Nov 2022 03:00
URI: https://www.open-access.bcu.ac.uk/id/eprint/12500

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