A Survey on LoRaWAN Technology: Recent Trends, Opportunities, Simulation Tools and Future Directions

Almuhaya, Mukarram A. M. and Jabbar, Waheb A. and Sulaiman, Noorazliza and Abdulmalek, Suliman (2022) A Survey on LoRaWAN Technology: Recent Trends, Opportunities, Simulation Tools and Future Directions. Electronics, 11 (1). p. 164. ISSN 2079-9292

electronics-11-00164-v2.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (4MB)


Low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies play a pivotal role in IoT applications, owing to their capability to meet the key IoT requirements (e.g., long range, low cost, small data volumes, massive device number, and low energy consumption). Between all obtainable LPWAN technologies, long-range wide-area network (LoRaWAN) technology has attracted much interest from both industry and academia due to networking autonomous architecture and an open standard specification. This paper presents a comparative review of five selected driving LPWAN technologies, including NB-IoT, SigFox, Telensa, Ingenu (RPMA), and LoRa/LoRaWAN. The comparison shows that LoRa/LoRaWAN and SigFox surpass other technologies in terms of device lifetime, network capacity, adaptive data rate, and cost. In contrast, NB-IoT technology excels in latency and quality of service. Furthermore, we present a technical overview of LoRa/LoRaWAN technology by considering its main features, opportunities, and open issues. We also compare the most important simulation tools for investigating and analyzing LoRa/LoRaWAN network performance that has been developed recently. Then, we introduce a comparative evaluation of LoRa simulators to highlight their features. Furthermore, we classify the recent efforts to improve LoRa/LoRaWAN performance in terms of energy consumption, pure data extraction rate, network scalability, network coverage, quality of service, and security. Finally, although we focus more on LoRa/LoRaWAN issues and solutions, we introduce guidance and directions for future research on LPWAN technologies.

Item Type: Article
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11010164
27 December 2021Accepted
5 January 2022Published Online
Uncontrolled Keywords: IoT, LPWAN, LoRa, LoRaWAN, LoRa simulation tools
Subjects: CAH10 - engineering and technology > CAH10-01 - engineering > CAH10-01-08 - electrical and electronic engineering
Divisions: Faculty of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environment > School of Engineering and the Built Environment
Depositing User: Waheb Abdullah
Date Deposited: 12 Dec 2022 15:51
Last Modified: 12 Dec 2022 15:51
URI: https://www.open-access.bcu.ac.uk/id/eprint/14011

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


In this section...