The Physiological Roles of Carnosine and β-Alanine in Exercising Human Skeletal Muscle

Matthews, Joseph J and Artioli, Guilherme G. and Turner, Mark D. and Sale, Craig (2019) The Physiological Roles of Carnosine and β-Alanine in Exercising Human Skeletal Muscle. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 51 (10). pp. 2098-2108. ISSN 0195-9131

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Abstract

Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) plays an important role in exercise performance and skeletalmuscle homeostasis. Dietary supplementation with the rate-limiting precursor β-alanine leads to an increase in skeletal muscle carnosine content, which further potentiates its effects. There is significant interest in carnosine and β-alanine across athletic and clinical populations. Traditionally, attention has been given to performance outcomes with less focus on the underlying mechanism(s). Putative physiological roles in human skeletal muscle include acting as an intracellular pH buffer, modulating energy metabolism, regulating Ca2+ handling and myofilament sensitivity, and scavenging of reactive species. Emerging evidence shows that carnosine could also act as a cytoplasmic Ca2+–H+ exchanger and form stable conjugates with exercise-induced reactive aldehydes. The enigmatic nature of carnosine means there is still much to learn regarding its actions and applications in exercise, health, and disease. In this review, we examine the research relating to each physiological role attributed to carnosine, and its precursor β-alanine, in exercising human skeletal muscle.

Item Type: Article
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002033
Date: 10 May 2019
Uncontrolled Keywords: metabolism, buffer, fatigue, calcium, antioxidant, detoxification
Subjects: B100 Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology
B400 Nutrition
C600 Sports Science
Divisions: Faculty of Health, Education and Life Sciences > School of Health Sciences
Depositing User: Joseph Matthews
Date Deposited: 21 Feb 2020 15:56
Last Modified: 10 May 2020 03:00
URI: http://www.open-access.bcu.ac.uk/id/eprint/8931

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