Who are the enforcers? The motives and methods of muscle for hire in West Scotland and the West Midlands

Rahman, Mohammed and McLean, Robert and Deuchar, Ross and Densley, James (2020) Who are the enforcers? The motives and methods of muscle for hire in West Scotland and the West Midlands. Trends in Organized Crime. ISSN 1084-4791

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Enforcement, ranging from threats to intimidation to assault to homicide, has long been an established practice within criminal networks. However, comparatively little academic research exists about the nature and role of enforcers within and beyond the context of contract killings. Drawing on qualitative interviews with criminal enforcers from two contrasting sites within the UK—the West Scotland and the West Midlands—the current study examines the articulated, identifiable pathways into criminal enforcement. Also it examines the nuanced nature of enforcement and the roles those men commonly adopt within the context of organised crime, as well as the relationship between these men’s activity, the wider context of organised crime, and presence of social and cultural capital within it. This article provides insights into how one becomes an enforcer; how contact is made between all parties involved; the degree of planning involved; and costing arrangements,
with important implications for research and practice.

Item Type: Article
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-020-09382-y
9 March 2020Accepted
21 May 2020Published Online
Uncontrolled Keywords: Bourdieu, Debt collecting, Enforcement, Hitman, Organised crime,Violence
Subjects: CAH15 - social sciences > CAH15-01 - sociology, social policy and anthropology > CAH15-01-03 - social policy
Divisions: Faculty of Business, Law and Social Sciences > School of Social Sciences > Dept. Criminology and Sociology
Depositing User: Mohammed Rahman
Date Deposited: 26 May 2020 11:55
Last Modified: 03 Mar 2022 15:54
URI: https://www.open-access.bcu.ac.uk/id/eprint/9252

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