Attributable Indicators For Measuring The Level Of Greenness Of Cities In Developing Countries: Lessons From Ghana

Owusu-Manu, D. and Debrah, C. and Oduro-Ofori, E. and Edwards, D.J. and Antwi-Afari, P. (2020) Attributable Indicators For Measuring The Level Of Greenness Of Cities In Developing Countries: Lessons From Ghana. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology. ISSN 1726-0531

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Purpose: The advances in green city growth is widely discussed in extant literature. The benefits of green cities to urban development in recent discussions of sustainability and sustainable development is well-documented and cannot be overemphasized. Although a growing study on green building development in developing countries has been advanced in literature, a paucity of studies explores green cities in developing countries. Moreover, evidence of studies focused on green cities development in Ghana is lacking. From the identified knowledge gap, the aim of this study is to establish the indicators/attributes for measuring the level of greenness of cities in developing countries.
Design/Methodology/Approach: A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the indicators/attributes for measuring the level of greenness of cities in developing countries. This study adopted the pragmatism as its undergirding research philosophy and the deductive research approach. In terms of methodological choice, quantitative research strategy was used to collect data from experts in sustainable urban development. The primary data retrieved from the study were analysed using Descriptive Statistics, Relative Importance Index, and One-sample t-test. The reliability and validity of the study were measured with the Cronbach’s Alpha test.
Findings: The study established 8 indicators for measuring green city development: air quality, water, sanitation, land use, health and safety, transportation, energy as well as building and construction. It was discovered that the development of green cities should enhance air quality, improve water production and supply, improve management in sanitation, promote mixed and integrative land use, maintain the health and safety of city dwellers, reduce the demand for transportation and formalise public transport, adopt renewable and efficient energy technologies and promote sustainable construction and green buildings. These indicators are key to policy making and implementation of green cities development.
Research Limitations/Implications: The study was focused in Ghana but not from other developing countries, however, the findings of this study do not limit the generalisability since the findings of the study can be used as a lesson to other developing countries.
Practical and theoretical implications: Theoretically, this study adopted quantitative indicators that is reproducible in another geographical context. This study contributively adds to the discourse on sustainability especially in Ghana and as a source of reference to motivate others to conduct further research in related areas. The outcomes of this study will help the local government, policy makers, city stakeholders and industry expertise gain insights in the overall indicators that underpin green city development.
Originality/value: This paper attempts to posit in literature the foremost appraisal of green city indicators adaptive in Ghana which could motivate other developing countries to develop their own green cities.

Item Type: Article
Identification Number:
12 August 2020Accepted
7 September 2020Published Online
Uncontrolled Keywords: Attributes, Ghana, Green Cities, Indicators, Sustainable Cities, Sustainable Development.
Subjects: CAH13 - architecture, building and planning > CAH13-01 - architecture, building and planning > CAH13-01-02 - building
Divisions: Faculty of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environment > School of Engineering and the Built Environment
Depositing User: David Edwards
Date Deposited: 18 Aug 2020 10:18
Last Modified: 12 Jan 2022 13:25

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