Exploring the roles of physical effort and visual salience within the proximity effect

Knowles, Daniel and Brown, Kyle G. and Aldrovandi, Silvio (2019) Exploring the roles of physical effort and visual salience within the proximity effect. Appetite, 145. p. 104489. ISSN 01956663

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Knowles at al. (2020, Appetite) - Exploring Physical Effort and Visual Salience.docx - Accepted Version

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Background: Recent work has explored the effectiveness of the Proximity Effect, where increasing the physical distance between consumer and snacks reduces intake. Foods requiring less effort to attain, or being more visually appealing, are seen to be consumed more. Relatedly, perceived effort and visual salience are suggested mechanisms for the proximity effect, but no prior studies have directly manipulated these in association with the effect. Two between-subjects studies conducted in university laboratories are presented.
Method: Twenty chocolate brownies that were either wrapped or unwrapped (Study 1, N=85), or 250g of M&M’s, either colourful or plain brown (Study 2, N=80), were presented as effort and salience manipulations respectively to participants at either 20cm or 70cm. Consumption was measured as ‘likelihood of consumption’ (Yes/No) and ‘actual consumption’ (units/grams). Potential moderating variables including perceived effort and perceived visual salience were also measured.
Results: Likelihood of consumption was positively predicted by perceived visual salience in both Studies, and by distance in Study 2. Significant main effects of distance, p <.001, ȵ^2 =.102 (20cm > 70cm), effort, p <.001, ȵ^2 =.089 (unwrapped > wrapped), and distance x effort interaction, p=.003, ȵ^2 =.111, were observed in Study 1 for actual consumption. A main effect of distance was found in Study 2 for actual consumption, p<.001, ȵ^2 =.062 (20cm > 70cm). Perceived visual salience positively correlated with actual consumption in both Studies.
Conclusions: Increasing physical effort and placing snacks further away appear to act independently and interactively to reduce snack consumption. Manipulating snack colour does not appear to influence consumption, whereas perceptions of visual salience appear to influence consumption. As such, perceived visual salience and physical effort are thought to be key mechanisms underpinning the proximity effect.
Pre-registration: Both Studies were pre-registered on the Open Science Framework (Study 1: 10.31234/osf.io/rmnys; Study 2: 10.31234/osf.io/u8bsz).
Keywords: Proximity, Effort, Salience, Nudging, Food Consumption, Choice Architecture.

Item Type: Article
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2019.104489
10 October 2019Accepted
15 October 2019Published Online
Subjects: CAH04 - psychology > CAH04-01 - psychology > CAH04-01-01 - psychology (non-specific)
Divisions: Faculty of Business, Law and Social Sciences > School of Social Sciences > Dept. Psychology
Depositing User: Silvio Aldrovandi
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2019 16:23
Last Modified: 03 Mar 2022 15:42
URI: https://www.open-access.bcu.ac.uk/id/eprint/8389

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